Medical Ethics
Ethics The study of ideal conduct, classed as a branch of philosophy. The first treatise in English, The Boke named the Gouernour, was published in 1531 by English physician, Sir Thomas Elyot (1490–1546). One of the earliest books, Ethics,was written by Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677), a Dutch philosopher of Jewish descent in Amsterdam. Spinoza dealt with metaphysics, psychology and ethics. 

Ethics of Human Experimentation The first directive on informed consent in human experimentation was issued by the Prussian Minister of the Interior in 1891. In his instructions to all prisons giving tuberculin as treatment for tuberculosis, he specified that it should not be given against the person’s will. The case of Albert Neisser (1855–1916), the discoverer of the gonococcus and professor of venereology at Breslau, was one of the first to highlight the ethics related to human experimentation and informed consent. In 1898, in his search for a means of prevention of syphilis, Neisser injected the serum of syphilitic patients into patients who were admitted for other medical conditions, without informing them. Some of these patients developed syphilis and Neisser concluded that the serum was not effective. He claimed that the patients had contracted syphilis elsewhere. Neisser was investigated by the public prosecutor and was fined by the Royal Disciplinary Court. Following the publicity of this case, Albert Moll collected a list of over 600 such instances of unethical research in his Physicians Ethics. He also advocated the procedure of gaining informed consent for human experimentation. The Prussian Parliament debated the issue further and commissioned a report from the Scientific Medical Office of Health, which included Rudolph Virchow (1821–1902) and other eminent physicians. As a result of their work, regulations on human experiments based on ethics were issued by the government to all hospitals and clinics in 1900. The first document that outlined ethical regulations on human experimentation based on informed consent followed the Nuremberg medical trials in 1947. This Nuremberg Code laid down ten standards to which physicians were expected to conform when carrying out research on humans. The Declaration of Helsinki, which was derived from the Nuremberg Code, was passed by the World Medical Assembly in Helsinki in 1964. The Helsinki Declaration contained further guidelines on biomedical research involving human subjects.



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Patients and Doctors: The Layman's Guide to Doctors and Doctoring,  Kenneth Walker, First Edition, Penguin Books, 1957
Patients and Doctors: The Layman's Guide to Doctors and Doctoring, Kenneth Walker, First Edition, Penguin Books, 1957
£19.00
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The Conduct of Medical Practice, Editor of Lancet, The Lancet 1927
The Conduct of Medical Practice, Editor of Lancet, The Lancet 1927
£38.00
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The Young Practitioner, with Practical Hints and Instructive Suggestions 1890 First Edition Styrap, Jukes de
The Young Practitioner, with Practical Hints and Instructive Suggestions 1890 First Edition Styrap, Jukes de
£78.00
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The Royal Commission on Vivisection, with a letter by Stephen Coleridge, Antivivsection Society, London, 1907
The Royal Commission on Vivisection, with a letter by Stephen Coleridge, Antivivsection Society, London, 1907
£165.00
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AN ESSAY CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTANDING In Four Books, Locke, John, 2 Volumes, foldable plate, 17th Edition, 1775,  rebound,
AN ESSAY CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTANDING In Four Books, Locke, John, 2 Volumes, foldable plate, 17th Edition, 1775, rebound,
£690.00
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