Medical Technology and Diagnostics
RADIOLOGY [Latin: radius, ray + Greek: logos, discourse] The first major break through in visualising disease was the discovery of X'rays. Heinrich Daniel Ruhmkorff (1803–1877), a German mechanic from Hannover who lived in Paris, built an induction coil in 1855 that formed the basis for the development of the Geissler  tube by German physicist, Heinrich Geissler (1814–1879) of Saxony. This enabled rarefied gases to be visualized when electricity was passed through them. German physicist and chemist Johann Wilhelm Hittorf(1824–1914) noticed a peculiar glow when electricity was passed through a vacuum in a Geissler  tube. In 1869 Sir William Crookes (1832–1919) of Cambridge improved the vacuum and observed the effects of passing a current through the tube. The Crookes tube was developed into the cathode ray tube which was used by Wilhelm Konrad von Röntgen (1845–1923)  during his work on X-rays. In 1895 while investigating cathode rays, Röntgen noticed that a new ray of greater penetrating power was emitted which he called X-rays. Röntgen announced his findings in 1896 but did not patent his discovery which helped his invention to be freely used in the fields of medicine, science and technology. A pioneer in application of X-rays to orthopedics was Etienne Destot(1864–1918) of Lyon, who used radiology for diagnosis of bone disease two months after Röntgen’s discovery. Wolf Becher (1826–1906) of Germany demonstrated that gastrointestinal tract can be outlined by X-rays using lead subacetate in animals in 1896. Further advances were made in the same year including the visualization of blood vessels by injection of a radio-opaque substance by two Viennese E. Haschek and O. T. Lindenthal. John Macintyre (1857–1928), a laryngologist at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary was another pioneer who established the department of radiology at the Glasgow Infirmary. He initially trained as an electrician before studying medicine, which helped him to construct the first portable X-ray unit before 1900. Walter Edward Dandy (1886–1946), an American neurosurgeon at Johns Hopkins, devised a method of introducing air into the ventricles of the brain to visualize it on X-rays in 1918. The use of X-rays to study the movement of barium in the gastrointestinal tract was pioneered by Walter Bradford Cannon(1871–1945) of Harvard University in 1898. Iodized oil as a contrast medium for use in radiology was introduced by Jean Athanase Sicard (1872–1929) in 1921. Visualization of the gall bladder was made possible in 1924 by Evarts Ambrose Graham (1883–1957) and Warren Henry Cole (b 1898) who used chlorinated and brominated phenolphthalein capable of being excreted by the liver. Iodophthalein, a less toxic compound, was introduced as an oral and an intravenous contrast medium by Whitaker and Miliken in 1929. Pheniodol replaced iodophthalein in 1940. Fluorescein, an early radioisotopic used in diagnostic neuroradiology, was introduced by George Eugene Moore (b 1922) in 1947. 

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X-Ray diagnosis: A manual for surgeons, practitioners and students, Redding, J. Magnus, Cassell, 1926. First Edition
X-Ray diagnosis: A manual for surgeons, practitioners and students, Redding, J. Magnus, Cassell, 1926. First Edition
£49.00
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Photelometric Clinical Chemistry, William S. Hoffman, William Morrow & Co., 1941. Hardcover
Photelometric Clinical Chemistry, William S. Hoffman, William Morrow & Co., 1941. Hardcover
£74.00
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Principles of medical statistics, Austin Bradford Hill, Fourth Edition, 1948, (first edition in 1937)
Principles of medical statistics, Austin Bradford Hill, Fourth Edition, 1948, (first edition in 1937)
£88.00
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