Stamps on Herbal Medicine
HERBAL MEDICINE [Latin: herba; a seed plant without woody stem] First form of remedy used by primitive medical men and witch doctors. A Chinese herbal drug Ma Huang , now known to contain the nerve stimulant ephedrine was used 5000 years ago. The Chinese Emperor Shen Nung (2800 BC) listed 365 herbal remedies in his great herbal, Pen TsoaGalen(129–200 BC) proposed 347 herbs for treatment of diseases. Australian Aborigines were familiar with various herbal remedies, including purgatives, emetics, narcotics, aphrodisiacs, and aromatics. By at least 400 BC, Susruta, the Brahmin physician described over 1000 diseases and 700 medicinal herbs in the Susruta Samitha. Dioscorides (c AD 40–90), a Greek physician of Anarzaba who lived during the reign of Nero, described over 600 plants in his five books on materia medica. Nicholas Praepositus of Salerno wrote Antidotarium , a book mainly on herbal treatment in the 12th century. Aztecs in central America practiced a high standard of medicine combined with a full array of herbal remedies before the Spanish conquest in the sixteenth century. Their city, Tenochtitlan, known as Mexico City today had pharmacies which listed over 1000 herbal medicines. The most well-known British herbalist, Nicholas Culpepper (1616–1654), was also a physician and astrologer and wrote his Herbal in 1649, which ran into numerous editions over two centuries. The transition from herbal medicine to scientific pharmacology started with the discovery of alkaloid extracts from plants in the 19th century. The alkaloids cinchonaand quinine were extracted from Peruvian bark (Cinchona succirubra) by P.J. Pelletier (1788–1842) and J.B. Caventou (1793–1877) of Paris in 1820, as well as opium.  Ephedrine, one of the earliest known alkaloids was extracted from Ephedra vulgaris  by Nagajosi Nagai (1844–1929) in 1887.

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Pakistan, Herbal medicine, Arabian Medicine, Ibn Sina, Avicenna, 1966 used stamp
Pakistan, Herbal medicine, Arabian Medicine, Ibn Sina, Avicenna, 1966 used stamp
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