X Rays

X-RAY In 1858 German physicist, Julius Pflucker (1801–1868) used Heinrich Daniel Ruhmkorff’s (1803–1877) induction coil to show that when a voltage was passed through two metal electrodes sealed in a glass tube under reduced pressure, sparks were produced. On further reducing the pressure a number of dark spaces appeared. In 1869 German physicist, Johan Wilhelm Hittorf (1824–1914) demonstrated that the dark spaces near the cathode were a form of ray.  These cathode rays were investigated by Sir William Crookes (1832–1919) using a high vacuum tube in 1872 and explained by Joseph John Thomson (1856–1940) in 1897. German physicist Wilhelm Konrad von Röntgen (1845–1923) of Würzberg investigated the properties of cathode rays using a Crookes tube and discovered X-rays for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1901. He discovered their ability to penetrate human tissue and leave an image on a photographic plate quite accidentally. His wife placed her hand between the tube and a photographic plate leaving the first such image. It was found that the rays could penetrate many substances. Progress on the nature of X-rays was made by Charles Glover Barckla (1877–1944), professor of physics at King’s College in London, who established their wavelength. A diagnostic X-ray photograph in America was taken by Michael Idvorsky Pupin (b 1858) of Columbia University in 1896. A prototype of the modern X-ray vacuum tube (Coolridge tube) was invented by  American physicist, William David Coolridge (1873–1975) in 1916. He replaced the cold aluminum cathode by a hot tungsten cathode.



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ENCYCLOPEDIA OF UROLOGY: DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY, Flocks, Rubin H. et al. Springer, 1962
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF UROLOGY: DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY, Flocks, Rubin H. et al. Springer, 1962
£88.00
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Clinical Radiation Therapy, Ira Kaplan, Clinical Professor of Radiology, New York. Second enlarged edition 1949
Clinical Radiation Therapy, Ira Kaplan, Clinical Professor of Radiology, New York. Second enlarged edition 1949
£198.00
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RADIOGRAPHY X-RAY THERAPEUTICS AND RADIUM THERAPY Knox, Robert, 1915 First Edition scarce sold
RADIOGRAPHY X-RAY THERAPEUTICS AND RADIUM THERAPY Knox, Robert, 1915 First Edition scarce sold
£275.00
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